Healthcare Group Members

Gerald Farmer
Randi Fisher
Michael Furey
Asia Galloway
Gabrielle Gosbin
Dashell Shaw
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Background

The healthcare of Camden, NJ and Philadelphia PA is one of the most prominent factors in these two communities. Camden was ranked the 2nd Most Dangerous City in America in 2010 and in the past five years took the crown for the number one spot and apparently is not giving it up. Philadelphia is ranked at number 55. This Wiki page is here to inform members of both communities and outside communities about the healthcare services provided in both cities.


Camden, NJ

Cooper University Hospital

1 Cooper Plaza, Camden, NJ 08103
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Cooper Hospital is located in Camden, NJ. Cooper Hospital was built in 1877, and was not opened until 1887. When Cooper first opened it only had 30 beds. Today Cooper has over 500 beds ready for patients. Over time Cooper Hospital became The Cooper Health System and the clinical campus for the University of Medicine and Dentistry - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Recently Cooper Hospital has become another clinical campus, this time for future physicians from Rowan University. Currently the hospital goes by Cooper University Hospital. Now Cooper University Health Care has more than 700 physicians in over 75 specialties. Cooper offers training programs for medical students, residents, nurses and allied health professionals in a vast collection of specialties. The Trauma Center at Cooper University Hospital was established in 1982 and is one of only three New Jersey State-Designated Level I Trauma Centers. Level I Trauma Centers care for severely injured patients including people that are involved in vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults with guns, knives, or blunt objects. On average, Cooper treats more than 2,700 trauma patients each year, making it the busiest center in New Jersey. It serves as the regional trauma center for southern New Jersey including Atlantic, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Gloucester, Mercer, Ocean and Salem County. Cooper's primary services are: the Bone & Joint Institute, Cancer Institute, Critical Care Medicine, Heart Institute, Level 1 Trauma Center, Neurological Institute and Urological Institute.


References:

"Our History." About Us -. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2014.

"American College of Surgeons: Trauma Programs: Consultations/Verification Programs: Verified Trauma Centers". Facs.org. Retrieved 2015-02-15.


Virtua Health Systems

1000 Atlantic Avenue
Camden, NJ 08104
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Virtua is a healthcare system headquartered in Marlton, NJ. Virtua consists of three hospitals: Virtua Marlton, Virtua Memorial and Virtua Voorhees. Virtua also provides services through two ambulatory care centers in Berlin and Camden and a wide range of other services, including rehabilitation and long-term care centers, home care, physical therapy and Mobile Intensive Care Units throughout Burlington, Camden, Gloucester and the surrounding counties. Virtua Camden is a broad outpatient medical facility serving Camden and surrounding communities with complete health care for the entire family. Virtua offers primary medical and dental care for adults and children of all ages. When specialized care is needed, Virtua Camden offers extensive expertise in everything from cardiology to wound care. The Camden department has many different programs including:

Emergency Center
Provides 24/7 care for patients of all ages. In 2010, Virtua Camden expanded its Emergency Department from 10 to 15 beds in response to growth over the past several years. In addition to more capacity, the the expansion included new treatment rooms that are larger, more comfortable and include space for family members.

Evans-Wisniewski Dental Center
Provides affordable dental services in a state of the art environment. Services include routine examinations, tooth restoration procedures such as fillings, implants, caps, and crowns.

Podiatry Outpatient Center
Specializes in diabetes-related foot care and limb preservation. Services include diabetic foot care, wound assessment and treatment, treatment for ingrown and fungal toenails, and surgical services for hammer toes, bunions, and fractures.

Childrens and Adolescent Behavioral Health Program (CASTLE)
Offers high quality mental health services designed to help children who have severe emotional, behavioral, or psychiatric disorders. CASTLE offers three levels of care including full-day partial hospital program, half-day after school program, and outpatient individual and family therapy.

Outpatient Rehabilitation Program
Offers a full range of physical therapy for conditions ranging from stroke to broken bones and sprained muscles. Individual treatment plans are designed to relieve pain and or restore independence.

Resources:
"Virtua Camden." - Virtua. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <https://www.virtua.org/locations/outpatient-centers-camden/default.aspx>.

CAMCare

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CAMCare Health Cooperation has been servicing the community of Camden, NJ and Gloucestor County since 1978. With their commitment to the city, CAMCare has became one of the largest primary care providers in the area. Health is their number one concern, regardless if one's ability to pay. No one is denied if they can't, if you are unemployed or uninsured CAMCare offers medical care at discounted rates, that are based on ones eligibility. Even though no one is denied if they don't have insurance, they accept most major insurance plans (Aetna, Horizon, Medicaid etc).There are eight different locations in the South Jersey area. CAMCare offers numerous services to the community, which are a pediatric service, obstetrics and gynecology, dental, internal medicine etc. They offer screening services that include hearing, tympanometry, tuberculosis etc. With everything that CAMCare offers, they always go the extra mile to make patients feel welcomed. They offer free transportation for prenatal patients and patients with special situations, and social work and counseling services.
Hours:
  • Monday & Wednesday: 8am-8pm
  • Tuesday, Thursday & Friday: 8am-4:30pm
  • Saturday: 9am-1pm

Locations:
  • 817 Federal St
  • 6th & Erie St
  • 2610 Federal St
  • 8th & Carl Miller Blvd

Work Cited:

Planned Parenthood
external image Logo%20Lockup%20Primary%20Blue.pngPlanned Parenthood offers a wide range of quality medical care. They have a multicultural staff who are diverse professional women and men in the education, medical and social services disciplines. In the early 1900's, Margaret Sanger influenced birth control leagues throughout the country. Inspired by her ambition, physicians wives organized birth control in Camden, NJ. In 1936, Dr.Horner and Dr. Rogers opened the first birth control in Camden under sponsorship of the Maternal Health League. In 1940 the group was recognized as the Planned Parenthood League of Southern New Jersey. The agency started on Benson street occupying three rows of houses. Later on in 1955, a "new state of the art facility" was built in downtown Camden. Planned Parenthood provides medical abortions, contraceptives, cancer screening, testing and treatment for std's etc. Not only are treatment provided for females but are also provides similar treatments for teens and men aged 39 and under. Planned Parenthood is open Monday-Thursday, they accept walk-ins or by appointments. They accept various insurance plans (Aetna, AmeriHealth, Blue Cross Blue Shield, NJ Medicaid, Cigna, Oxford and QualCare). If you do not have insurance you can sign up for an affordable plan. With or without insurance no on is turned down.
Hours:
  • Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday: 8am-4:30pm
  • Thursday: 8am-5m
  • Friday: 8:30am-2pm
Locations:
  • 317 Broadway
  • 8008 Rt.130
  • also have Pennsylvania locations
Work Citied:

Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers

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Introduction

As stated in the article, 'Creating a Healthier Camden', the most common trip to the ER of a hospital is for colds and earaches. This is not only a waste of time for the hospital but it is costing money toward the economy of Camden. The need for affordable health care is desperately needed in the city of Camden. President Obama contributed by making the Affordable Care Act, also known as, Obamacare. This helps hospitals and doctors keep the chronically ill patients out of the ER. There needs to be more than one small doctor's office in Camden. As said in the article, 'Setting up shop where the sick are' by Nadia Ali, "Having a primary care office where you live breaks down a lot of barriers you run into when you want to go to the doctor here in Camden". The long waits in hospitals for headaches, colds and/or coughs, can now be held in this doctor's office. This Act helps cut incredible cost in the hospital and also helps give more care to the sickest patients.

The problem with this act is it is still in stride but the people have not fully committed to it. Patients cannot conform into receiving care from someone new. Especially with the fact of living in the most dangerous area, people living within have trouble trusting anyone. There has been a decrease in hospital visits, however the doctor's office is still loosing $150,000.00 a year (Gorenstein, 2013).

The Camden Coalition of Healthcare providers has made an impact on many lives. One man from Cincinnati, who was diagnosed with epilepsy but along with that he had a history of drug and alcohol abuse and lived in an unstable household. These conditions affected not only his health but led him to make constant trips to the emergency room. When the Camden Coalition stepped in, their goal was to help and quit the significant visits to the ER. They first found him a medical home and switch to managed care so it was more suitable to his needs. Each week they consistently met up with him for appointments, paying attention and consulting his needs. This helped him for his physical and mental health, especially since the home he grew up in and lived in was not a stable environment. After three months, his medical goals were met. Now, his living situation had to be resolved. He was living on a $700.00 monthly income and a criminal record with drug felony which resulted in not many options. The care team was able to find him a temporary placement at a local shelter. The local shelter was referred to as a Drop-In center and it basically provides all types of services for the homeless. As he was placed here, the care team looked for housing. Within 5 weeks of living at the Drop-In center he finally landed in an apartment. The care team still checks up on him and he is now focused in a stable environment. Before they met with him, he visited the ER 28 times and he had a balance of $90,000.00 in charges. Since the intervention he was admitted to the ER 4 times, with the amount of $6856.00. The Camden Coalition helped him gain control of his health by placing him in a stable environment and a more affordable way of doing so (Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers, 2014).

It is difficult to make changes to the healthcare system and reverting to ways that one is not necessarily used to. The projects and laws have made somewhat of a success but it has used a lot money in just building these up. But it is safe to say that these acts are doing the best that they can to build a better environment and economy for areas in which they are not doing so well.

Mission, Vision & Values

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In addition to the above mission and vision, the following core values guide this non-profit organization:
  • Servant Leadership
    • "We strive to serve as compassionate servant leaders, allowing us to focus on the growth and well being of the individuals and the community we serve. We aim to empower our patients, members, and partner organizations to improve performance every day."
  • Communication and Collaboration
    • "We believe that open, honest, and consistent communication within our staff and with our community, members, and partners allows for collaboration and expands the support and investment in our mission. We are committed to being open source and sharing our knowledge with others so that we ultimately integrate our model and priorities into the broader healthcare system."
  • Compassion and Respect
    • "We respect our patients, our members, and our community. We respect the different needs, backgrounds, and life experiences of all those we encounter and through compassion for each individual’s unique experience, we strive to serve and engage them in our mission."
  • Innovation
    • "We strive to innovate by restrategizing and reworking solutions to meet the needs of patients in our community. We understand that with innovation comes the risk of failure; however, we embrace the learning opportunities that continuously inform our work. We understand that success in our work requires changing systems from office practice to state and national policies."
  • Data Driven
    • "We use data to guide our discussions and decisions, to evaluate program progress, and to guide program improvements."

Strategies

As mentioned in the introduction, home visits with patients is one component of CCHP's approach to working toward lowering the healthcare cost curve. As you will see, this is only one component to the programs offered and outreach done by CCHP.
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Good Care Collaborative
"A coalition of providers and advocates from across the healthcare spectrum in New Jersey," who are "committed to discussing sensible Medicaid reform,".

Care Management Initiatives
This program is described in the introduction above. This program is "designed to target high cost, complex patients for improved care transitions and care coordination using the embedded nurse care manager/medical home model from Geisinger and the Group Health Cooperative."

Cross-Site Learning (CSL)
Through grants awarded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and one the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovations, CCHP provides support to 10 sites across the country who are designing and implementing strategies similar to those used by CCHP to care for patients who are "super-utilizers" of services.

Health Information Exchange (HIE)
Launched in 2010, this web-based application allows for over 400 healthcare providers in Camden County access to share patient records between the following corporations: Virtua Health, Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center, Cooper University Health Care, Kennedy Health System, Fairview Village Family Practice, Dr. Ramon Acosta, St. Luke’s Catholic Medical Services, Reliance Medical Group Family Medicine & Podiatry, Camden County Offices, CAMcare Health Corporation, Project H.O.P.E. Camden, Holy Redeemer Home Care & Hospice, Camden County Correctional Facility, Quest Diagnostics, and LabCorp.


Medicaid ACO

An "ACO" is an Accountable Care Organization. With the passage of the new healthcare legislation, the Affordable Care Act or "Obama Care", allows for a network of doctors and hospitals to form partnerships with goal of providing better care to a selected group of patients (Gold). What makes CCHP different from other ACOs is that CCHP, a non-profit organization, is the ACO and that it is a demographic ACO. CCHP has applied to the State of New Jersey to be certified as a Medicaid ACO that is responsible for coordinating care of all adult Medicaid patients residing within the city limits of Camden, NJ. The "big picture" concept is to not only drive down costs but create methods that work better then the current healthcare system.

One of the main reasons lawmakers included the concept of ACOs in the healthcare legislation at the national and state level is to save money. In the first three years of the ACO projects, an estimated $960 million could be saved (Gold). This saving translates to saving taxpayers money. Payments to providers participating in an ACO project works in the following way: the ACO "...creates savings incentives by offering bonuses when providers keep costs down and meet specific quality benchmarks, focusing on prevention and carefully managing patients with chronic diseases. In other words, providers would get paid more for keeping their patients healthy and out of the hospital," (Gold).



Works Cited:

"Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers." Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers RSS2. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.

"Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers." Web. 16 Feb. 2015. <http://www.camdenhealth.org/>

Gorenstein, D. (2013, August 1). Creating a healthier camden. Retrieved from Marketplace.org

Gold J. Accountable Care Organizations, Explained. Kaiser Health News, NPR. Jan 18, 2011. <http://www.npr.org/2011/04/01/132937232/accountable-care-organizations-explained>.

Patient success story from cincinnati. (2014). Retrieved from www.camdenhealth.org




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Philadelphia, PA

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History

The first ever hospital to be built in the United States was the Pennsylvania Hospital by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Bond. It was founded in 1751. It was initially built after increasing numbers of poor individuals were suffering from physicals illnesses. Not long after people from all classes were tormented from mental illnesses until civic- minded leaders like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Bond thought of a solution to the problem, by founding a hospital. "To care for the sick- poor and insane who were wandering the streets of Philadelphia."

Pennsylvania is one of the most fast growing states of the nation, being very well known for its tourist attractions, and landmarks such as The Liberty Bell, Philadelphia City Hall, and Christ Church Burial Ground making this a beautiful historic fascination. Not to mention that is it the sixth most populous state in the USA, containing about 66 counties. Transportation is provided all around such as the Patco/subway, buses, taxi’s and also your everyday horse carriage.

Among with this, another great thing this state proves is The Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Using the state of the art technology in their 500,000 square foot facility, costing over 300 million dollars. Also, in this facility, they proves first of its kind Proton therapy center for cancer. This City has the nations first medical school, children’s hospital, cancer hospital, eye hospital, nursing school and dental school. Trying to provide the best care for the patients.

The concern of public health care goes back as far as William Penn’s “Greene Countrie Towne”, being the first American city to provide free hospital care for it’s poorest residents at Philadelphia Almshouses, built in 1732. This set the foundation of the public health care. Many other services also then stepped up helping many in need with their efficient technology and care. Such as The Ambulatory Health Services (Health Centers), operating in 8 cities located in neighborhoods all across Philadelphia. Many of these Hospitals accept Medicare, Medicaid, HMO plans and of course, the Obama-Care. However, if someone is uninsured, the hospitals only charge a small fee based on the family size and income making it very affordable.

Work Cited:

About the Perelman Center. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2014, from Penn Medicine
website http://www.pennmedicine.org/perelman/building/

Ambulatory [[#|Health Services]] (Health Centers). (2010). Retrieved April 11, 2014, from Public Health
website: http://www.phila.gov/health/ambulatoryhealth/index.html


Public Health Management Corporation

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Public Health Management Corporation (PHMC) has served the Philadelphia region since 1972. This company is a nonprofit healthcare institute that stands to help communities become healthier through different relations with foundations, community organizations, government, and businesses. This company strives to make a healthier community by providing outreach, education on health, research, planning, and even direct services. PHMC has about 1500 employees and is involved in 250 programs being known as the largest health organization that is public in the nation.

The programs that PHMC is the leader in involves varies health topics such as behavioral health services, emergency assistance, environmental health, family services, health promotion, services for special populations, and much more. The work of PHMC impacts the entire region of the Greater Philadelphia since all the work is community level based healthcare. Public Health Management Corporation and it's affiliates have an estimated annual amount of 400 million but of each dollar about 92 cents goes to the programs totaling around 161 million for the community organizations.

A special program that is a part of PHMC is known as the Mary Howard Health Care which is the only center that is specifically for homeless people in a nurse- managed environment. The only way this type of unique care is achievable is by providing health care for the homeless following specific steps for recovery: from the streets to the shelter to the transitional housing until these individuals reach a point of self sufficiency. The success of this program is reached through the direct services such as the Health Care for Homeless People, homeless advocates, as well as the Philadelphia Department of Health which takes a role in informing individuals of the serious health risk that can occur when living in the streets and shelter. The services for the Mary Howard Health Care are open to any patient, from anywhere in need, in spit of their ability to pay.

Recently, PHMC has supported a movement called Access is the Answer. This campaign stands for fixing the health care funding cliff; it is projected that there will be a 70 percent reduction in all health care center funding at the start of the fiscal year 2016. It is stated the the health care cliff involves the removal of funds that are granted to health care centers therefore the advocates are trying their best to push Congress to fix the funding cliff. Health Care Centers survive off of grants so the reduction would not just hurt the center but close it for good. These centers are necessary for communities because they have the ability to reach every health need. This reduction would impact the health care center as well as the employees and patients; then where will these local communities turn to for health care needs.

Work Cited:
"Access Is the Answer." Campaign for America's Health Center. 1 Jan. 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

"PHMC." Public Health Management Corporation. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.

Critiques

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The people of Philadelphia have many options of healthcare facilities. Along with the people of Philadelphia, other states or surrounding areas receive treatment in the city. People from outside of Philadelphia receive care from certain facilities because they cannot receive the certain type of treatment in their area. Philadelphia medical centers perform a wide range of research and withhold providers of the best in the country. However, the cost of utilizing these medical centers has caused an issue. This all falls back to the Affordable Health Care Act that was mentioned in the Camden Policy. This is supposed to benefit all Americans, patients and providers.

The top hospitals do not reflect the health of fellow Philadelphians themselves. The residents of the city is know for being the poorest big city in America. It also leads to being the the most overweight city. The problem with being known as the most overweight city, it causes need for healthcare. Michael Yudell mentions statistics of the health of Philadelphians. He states that, "More than one in ten babies born in Philadelphia weigh less than 5 pounds and 8oz". This begins the life with many risk factors. The major risks are disease, diabetes and respiratory issues . Yudell also states, "One out of five Philadelphians are in poor or fair health". Many people of the city are unemployed which leads to unhealthy food decisions and tend to smoke/drink more. The burden and stress of not having a job results in them making unhealthy life decisions. Healthcare is not cheap and the people of the city rally for affordable healthcare. They can not afford much let alone the health costs of doctor visits, emergency room run's, dentist appointments, prescriptions etc.


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The child advocacy group Public Citizens for Children & Youth (PCCY) projects that of the 950,000 children in the region of Philadelphia that are under 18, at least 200,000 suffer from mild behavioral problems. Another 100,000 struggle to overcome significant behavioral health issues. Despite this only about 39,000 children in Southeastern Pennsylvania accessed behavioral health services through the public system. This is caused because of the low income homes that cannot afford the health care needs of their children. Children who live in low-income communities within Philadelphia face an additional challenge: they experience multiple stressors that worsen mental/behavioral health issues. Considering that 33.6 percent of families with children under the age of 18 live below the poverty line in Philadelphia it comes as no surprise that the need for mental health care in the city of Philadelphia is highly needed. (U.S. Census Bureau 2008).

Over 131,000 Philadelphians are without health insurance (according to the Community Health Data Base) They have no protection against a major medical event, either an accident, disease or other disruption. They also lack preventive care that can minimize or prevent health problems from arising or getting worse. It’s not right, and Philadelphia Unemployment Project is doing its best to turn the trend around. PUP has increased access for Philadelphians, either through creating programs like adultBasic or protecting Philadelphia's Neighborhood Health Centers. At the same time, fewer
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and fewer employers are providing health insurance or they are cutting back on benefits or making it too costly for employees to afford. So although these projects and programs are being deleveloped and available for workers to have, its costing them way too much money to afford it. This is because it is falling back on the companies that citizens of Philadelphia are working for, they do not want to cover health care benefits for all of their workers so they are making them pay for it, which is outrageous amounts of money. Which goes back to the reason why most people that live in the city of Philadelphia do not have medical insurance because it is too high.

Healthcare in Philadelphia is desperate for affordable costs to improve health on residents. It is awesome to live in the top medical industry, however not easy to pay. As of 2012, Governor Corbett admitted budget cuts, especially that pertained to those of the Philadelphia residency. He cut the welfare and public education programs. This did not contribute to the poor, it just made things worse. It shocked everyone of the city and of course left them worrisome. Not only did it affect the poor, it also affected those who are on hospice, the nursing home that is run by the city, and people who suffer with mental illness. It leads to more people on the streets and the racking up of payments of those who do not have healthcare (Yudell, 2012).

WorkCited:

Yudell, M. (June, 2012 12). Philadelphia ranks dead last on health. and with budget cuts... Retrieved from www.philly.com

Philadelphia Social Innovations (2010, February). Bringing Mental and Behavioral Health Care to Hard-to-Reach Populations. Retrieved from http://www.philasocialinnovations.org

Philadelphia Unemployment Project (2010). Health Care. Retrieved from http://www.philaup.org

Obamacare

Within the first year Obamacare has been open it has lowered the amount of uninsured people in the population by 3 percent

What is it?
It expands Medicaid to over 15 million uninsured Americans. This new law allows you the ability to get affordable coverage. Before the law you could be turned down in regards to your health, gender, or anything they felt was a threat that would come from helping you. Now you can not be turned down because of discrimination.
Obamacare is the federal Affordable Care Act of 2014, presented by President Obama in 2010. Obamacare helps in numerous ways, affordable is the main concern, but here are just a few. One, it helps previous costumers by required insurances to cover patients and to prevent from canceling the coverage. Two, requires close to all U.S. citizens and legal residents to have health insurance. Third, expand Medicaid coverage. Fourth, increases the opportunity for more people to have an affordable plan. Lastly, establishes new funding in the medical field and prevention of returning patients.

How do you get it?
You apply during open enrollment days which were this year between November 15, 2014 until February 15, 2015. Missing the enrollment period will cost one to wait an entire year until the enrollment periods are back again unless one is considered to special enrollment. Special enrollments for Obamacare has a different set of dates for sign up, which vary on what the special period is for. The ways to get the enrollment period rearranged is by getting married, adopting a child, permanently moving to a new area, losing other health coverage, or a change in income or household status.

Who can apply?
Americans making under 400% of the poverty line can apply for assistance. Obamacare makes it easy for young people to afford insurance because they will not be able to be live off their parents insurance forever.

Where to go to apply?
http://obamacarefacts.com/obamacare-open-enrollment/


Works Cited:

"What Is ObamaCare / What Is Health Care Reform?" Obamacare Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015.
http://obamacarefacts.com/whatis-obamacare/

Amadeo, K. (2014, January 1). Preventive Care. Retrieved February 16, 2015, from http://useconomy.about.com/od/healthcarereform/fl/Preventive-Care.htm





Other Cities



Detroit, Michigan

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History
The city of Detroit has provided care, research, clinical services and advanced technology for the people of the surrounding area. It has made remarkable improvement and has succombed a high standard for over one hundred years. The Detroit Medical Center withholds many different hospitals such as: The DMC Children's Hospital, DMC Detroit Receiving Hospital, DMC Surgery Hospital, DMC Harper University Hospital, DMC Huron Valley-Sinai Hospital, DMC Hutzel's Women Hospital, DMC Kresge Eye Institute, DMC Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan, DMC Sinai- Grace Hospital, DMC University Labs, DMC Partner-Karmanos Cancer Institute. It would be assumed that with this amount of facilities there would be an innumerable care from primary physicians. But, for the people of the city it makes it near impossible to afford these services (dmc.org).

Recent Policy

The struggle to afford healthcare has brought upon the Detroit health care. Advantage health centers is an agency that helps those that are poor and in need of serious care. It all began with the low number of primary physician care that could not serve the population of the city. Detroit has high end hospitals and top of the line doctors but nowhere near enough doctor's offices.

Critiques

This all stems back to the affordable care act. The people of Detroit were using the Emergency Department as primary care for common colds/sore throats. This wasted the doctor's time and also led to the wasting of thousands of dollars by these patients for these simple services. Advantage health center/Detroit health care provides medical, dental and social work services no matter what insurance the patient has. The cost of services is not exactly given but depending on the household income, discounts can be given. They provide care for anyone that walks into their center. If the patient cannot pay, the care is given either way. The advantage of this center contributes to the community of Detroit, financially and of course benefits the health of their society (ahcdetroit.org).

Work Cited:

Detroit [[#|Medical]] Center (2014) Organization History and Profile https://www.dmc.org/organization-history-and-profile.html
Advantage Health Center (2014) ahc.org



Boston, Massachusetts

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History

Prior to 1811 there was no affordable health insurance; only to the wealthy residents of Boston, Massachusetts were able to seek at-home medical attention. The less fortunate were left to suffer without the possibility of medical treatment. However, after being advocated by certain individuals the largest hospital in New England was founded with the intention of providing health care to the poor individuals in the region! This new hospital would become known as the Massachusetts General Hospital. This hospital is the third oldest general hospital in the country- the two older hospitals being the Pennsylvania Hospital and New York- Presbyterian Hospital. The Massachusetts General Hospital is the original teaching hospital of the famous Harvard Medical School; together they form an Academic Health Science Center and has the largest hospital-based research program in the world! Since then there has been much progress in the field including the development of anesthesia. The hospital is currently ranked #2 in the nation with an annual budget of $75 million!

Recent Policy

In 2006, An Act Providing Access to Affordable, Quality, Accountable Health Care, was a health care reform law the state of Massachusetts passed with the purpose of providing free or [[#|affordable health]] care to its residents. The original law made it so the residents had to obtain at least a minimum level of insurance coverage and forced employers who had over 10 full-time employees to provide healthcare insurance. Anyone who was earning less than 150% of the federal poverty level was provided with free healthcare insurance. This reform was due in response to a significant growing number of uninsured residents. After the reform over 2/3 of those not insured were! The state worked together with the federal government to expand medicaid and create a system to provide affordable health care to those who did not qualify.

Critiques

As stated in the recent policy section, In 2006, Massachussetts passed a health care reform law with the aim to aid nearly all residents in the proper health care they need. The law mandated that nearly every Massachusetts resident obtain a minimum level of health insurance coverage, provide health care for residents ranging a certain poverty level (earning less then 150% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) and provide health care to employers with 10 or more employees. Despite the economic recession, within a year of implementation, Massachusetts saw the lowest rate of uninsured residents in the country.

Although this Health Care Reform significantly reduced the number of uninsured residents in the state of Massachusetts, the state still struggled to control the cost of healthcare forcing a few revisions to be made to the Massachusetts Health Care Reform. State Health Reform focused on the expansion of health care to all residents leaving the burden of worrying about the large cost this would take for later years. A revision to the Massachusetts Health Care Reform that helped the process of covering the costs of health care for residents was called the Commonwealth Care Health Insurance Program. This Program provides sliding-scale subsidized health coverage for individuals with incomes below 300% of the Federal Poverty Level when individuals up to 150% FPL were eligible for fully subsidized coverage through the program. By the fall of 2011, over 158,000 low income adults were enrolled in Commonwealth Care Plans and more the 4 out of 5 people claimed they were satisfied with the program.

After six years of the implementation of the Massachusetts Health Care Reform, the increasing numbers of uninsured residents continued while the rest of the country used MA as a model for their future plans to implement similar health reforms to bring their states to a good level of insured residents. While there are still some problems that the state of Massachusetts faces with the Health Care Reform, the rest of the country will analyze the successes and challenges that Massachusetts faced when implementing the Reform, to figure out what is best for their state.

An important aspect of Massachusetts Health Care is the Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector Authority. It is the centerpiece of Massachusetts Health Care Reforms that were implemented in 2006. This insurance Connector is an independent governmental agency created by the Massachusetts Legislature to purchase of affordable and high quality health insurance by business and individuals without employer coverage. The Connector has been charged with creating an exchange where affordable health insurance options are made available to people who previously did not have health insurance.


Works Cited:

Romney, Mitt. "My Plan for Massachusetts Health Insurance Reform - The Boston Globe." BostonGlobe.com. The Boston Globe, 24 Nov. 2004. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

"Massachusetts General Hospital." Hospital Overview. Massachusetts General Hospital, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

"Session Law." S: Chapter 58 of the Acts of 2006. Common Wealth of Massachusetts, 2006. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

Massachusetts Health Care Reform: Six Years Later. " Kaiser Family Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web.

Lischko, Amy. "The Massachusetts Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector: Structure and Functions." Commonwealthfun.org. N.p., n.d. Web.


Chicago, Illinois

external image chicagoSkyline12042741911.jpg

History
The city of Chicago, Illinois is the third most populous city in America, with almost 2.7 million people. Out of those millions of peoples that reside in the city, there is a miniscule of people that have health insurance. CommunityHealth which is a facility dedicated to residents who are uninsured and undeserved and who live in Chicago and some surrounding states and cities. Their program was founded in 1993, and since then had provided service for more than 11,000 patients for over 25,500 medical and dental visits.

Recent Policy

Many people throughout Chicago are uninsured, so what CommunityHealth does is provides numerous types of medical care such as: primary care, specialties, dental care, preventive health screenings, vaccinations, select diagnostic testing, and related services (CommunityHealth, What We Do). The patients receive relationships with the physicians as if this facility was a private practice.

Critiques

In my opinion, I believe that there should be Universal Health Care. Yes, these programs and non-profit organizations are nice. But what about those people, that don’t fit the qualifications to receive this kind of health or don’t know these type of programs, and even miss out on the days that its available and the supplies don’t run out? Health insurance and health care is a priority and something that shouldn’t be given to people that. Thankfully, the Affordable Care Act (“ObamaCare”), has helped not only residents in Chicago but also people all across America.

Work Cited:

CommunityHealth: WHO WE ARE (2014) http://www.communityhealth.org/who-we-are/


Recommendations

-As a group, we want the healthcare of Camden to help the residents afford healthcare. We decided that the insurance should have a punch card, that within each visit, they would punch a hole and each hole would have a discount off their visit balance.
-Education to children about healthy eating habit and exercise
-More successful stories from the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers. By cutting down the debt of residents in Camden.

2014 Class Task Force